IRELAND AND THE POPE
A Brief History of Papal Intrigue Against
Irish Liberty from Adrian IV to Leo XIII
by James G. Maguire
(Judge of the superior court of San Francisco, California, 1888)
IRELAND AND THE POPE
A Brief History of Papal Intrigue Against
Irish Liberty from Adrian IV to Leo XIII
by James G. Maguire
(Judge of the superior court of San Francisco, California, 1888)
College of Cardinals (The Italian Ring)
Began in 1059, and was comprised of six bishops. Each new Pope enlarged the college. Now, after centuries past, there are at least 70 Cardinals.
The controlling power of the Catholic hierarchy consists of the Pope and a college of seventy Cardinals. The Pope appoints the Cardinals and the Cardinals elect the Pope. The whole church organization is therefore under the absolute and exclusive control of a self-perpetuating body of seventy one men.
The tremendous power wielded by those seventy one men, cannot be questioned by any person, or body of persons, in the church.
…if the College of Cardinals should ever fall into the hands of a few designing families it would be impossible to prevent them from creating or perpetuating a most exclusive aristocracy, as powerful and irresponsible as any that ever held sway upon earth.
The College of Cardinals for over eight hundred years (ever since it was created) has been composed almost exclusively of Italians, and these have been nearly all members of a little Italian nobility consisting of a very few families.
We had, recently, an illustration of the nepotism and family influence still prevailing at the Vatican, in that, while the Irish priesthood, representing more genuine Catholics than does the Italian priesthood, had not a single representative in the College of Cardinals, and while the Italians had more than a two-thirds majority of that college
This is also an illustration of the closer relation between the "nobilities" of England and Italy than exists between the Italians and their Irish co-religionists.
Assumption of Global Political Power
Prior to the year 860 the Pope was inducted into office as "Vicar of our Savior Jesus Christ," and the miter was placed upon his head as one of the emblems of his priestly authority. Sometime between the years 858 and 867, Pope Nicholas I. united a kingly crown with the miter, and between that time and the year 1200…a second crown was added, and the third crown was added about the year 1370, thus completing the tiara.
Ever since that time, "The tiara is placed on the Pope's head, at his coronation, by the second Cardinal Deacon, in the loggia of St. Peter's, with the words, ' Receive the tiara adorned with three crowns, and know that thou art Father of Princes and Kings, Ruler of the World, Vicar of our Savior Jesus Christ"
End of Servility
That purpose is to assist in raising my father's countrymen and my own kinsmen above that groveling fear of the Pope, which makes so many of them nerveless when he strikes a blow at their country and their race…
Maguire likens the situation in Ireland to that in Mexico under Cortez and the Conquistadors who first spread the tenets of their religion before committing genocide.
…the whole history of Vatican interference with Irish politics shows an unbroken line, for seven hundred years, of acts hostile to the liberties and natural rights of the Irish people. The subjugation of Ireland to English rule, as is well known to all students of Irish history, was not accomplished by the force of English arms, but by the decree and grant of Pope Adrian IV; supplemented and enforced by the decrees and orders of Pope Alexander III.
…to-day not one among a hundred of the Irish people knows how their country lost her nationality, and still fewer are aware of the persistent efforts of the successors of Adrian and Alexander to keep Ireland in the slavery to which their infamous bargain delivered her.
In the year 1152 Ireland was a prosperous and independent nation, holding "her place among the nations of the earth." Then it was that: "Argosies, laden with riches the rarest, gracefully dipped their proud ensigns" to her banner.
In that fatal year Cardinal John Paparo appeared in Ireland as the special legate of Pope Eugenius III. He was the first Italian legate ever sent to Ireland may Persico be the last! He summoned the bishops and principal priests to the Synod of Kells, and there delivered palliums to the archbishops, taking their oaths of obedience to the Pope. From that hour dates the downfall of Irish nationality.
This temporal power was speedily turned to the Pope's financial and political advantage. In the year 1154 Henry II. became King of England, and shortly afterwards sent John of Salisbury to Rome as a Royal emissary. The King desired to add Ireland to his kingdom, and the Pope desired to put Ireland under tribute to the Vatican, the Irish people having previously "paid those small dues called Peter's pence to the See of Armagh, which the rest of Europe paid to Rome."
1156 (Saint Peter’s Pence)
In the year 1156 Pope Adrian IV. gave to Henry II., King of England, a bull granting to him the political sovereignty of Ireland; addressing him as " my dearest son in Christ, the illustrious King of England;" authorizing him "to enter Ireland, to reduce the people to obedience under the laws, and to extirpate the plants of vice” on condition that he would "pay from each (meaning from each Irish family) a yearly pension of one penny to St. Peter, and that you will preserve the rights of the churches of this land in violate."
Henry’s Fifteen Year Delay
Henry II., for various reasons connected with the vicissitudes of England, did not make any use, now known to us, of the Bull of Adrian for fifteen years after receiving it. Adrian being then dead, Henry applied to Pope Alexander III for a confirmation of the grant of Ireland.
In the year 1172 Pope Alexander issued a bull…
England's promise to the Vatican has been faithfully fulfilled to the letter; but alas, every penny of the tribute has been stained with the blood and tears of Erin's subjugated children. Armed with these bulls, King Henry, who, before receiving the last, had entered Ireland (October 18th, 1171), claiming it under that of Adrian IV.
Synod of Cashel
Here the Bulls of Adrian and Alexander were read, and, "in the name of the Sovereign Pontiff, the clergy and people of Ireland were called upon to receive Henry the Second of England as their king.”
Some of the clergy inclined to the admonitions of the Pope and submitted to Henry, whilst others went their ways to their respective provinces, as much in grief as in anger. Some of the secondary chiefs of the south gave up their territories to Henry, receiving the same back to hold as his vassals; and, as this act of submission appeared not humiliating, owing to the acquiescence of so many of the clergy in the ordinance of the See of Rome, Henry obtained the adherence of seven counties without striking a blow – Mooney’s History
Letter of King of Ulster (Donnell O’Neill)
During the course of so many ages (three thousand years) our sovereigns preserved the independency of their country; attacked more than once by foreign powers, they wanted neither force nor courage to repel the bold invaders: but that which they dared to do against force -, they could not do against the simple decree of one of your predecessors Adrian
Crown and Cross
"In this Synod," says Rev. P. J. Carew, Professor of Divinity in the Catholic College of Maynooth, Ireland (citing Dr. Lanigan's History), "the Legate set forth Henry's right to the sovereignty of Ireland, in virtue of the Pope's authority, and inculcated the necessity of obeying him under pain of excommunication"
Until that time the Catholic Churches were inviolable sanctuaries into which the hunted people might flee, and in which their lives were safe from murder and their property from spoliation. At this Synod of Dublin, the Pope through his Legate made Ireland an exception to this rule, and gave leave to the English soldiers to enter the churches and strip the people of the food brought there for safety.
1180 (No Irish Bishops)
In the year 1 180 King Henry…resolved that an office of so much importance (the Archbishopric of Dublin), should not be entrusted to an Irishman…John was not then a priest, but was in the following year ordained, and was consecrated by Pope Lucius III.," who, at the request of the King, released the new archbishop and his archdiocese from the control, and even from the visitations, of the Irish Primate of Ireland.
From that time to the present, from Comyn to McCabe, at least the British Government…has generally dictated, either directly or indirectly, the appointment of most of the Catholic archbishops and even bishops of Ireland. It became at one time a common saying that "Ireland gets her rent receipts and archbishops from England."
Since the reformation, the government negotiations with the Vatican have been conducted by secret emissaries and are difficult of discovery
On the 1 4th of September, 1808, the Catholic bishops of Ireland met in synod in Dublin
and passed, among others, the following resolution "That the Roman Catholic prelates pledge themselves to adhere to the rules by which they have been hitherto uniformly guided namely, to recommend to his Holiness (for appointment as Irish Roman Catholic bishops) only such persons as are of unimpeachable loyalty."
Exclusion of Irish from Ecclesiastical Duty
In the 13th and 14th centuries such race prejudices had arisen between the Irish and Anglo-Irish in Ireland that they each established rules, excluding the other from their canonries (religious colleges) and religious houses. Complaint being made to Pope Innocent IV, he issued a bull requiring the Irish to admit the English and Anglo-Irish to their canonries. Complaint being afterwards made by the Irish to Pope Leo X, he issued a bull confirming the right of the English to exclude the Irish from their canonries. Under this bull Irish ecclesiastics and students were excluded from institutions which had been founded and endowed by their own Irish ancestors.
The English Government, then in secret diplomatic correspondence with the Vatican, had satisfactory assurances that none but pro-English bishops and archbishops would be appointed for Ireland, and that, by educating her priesthood into a sufficiently rigid political subserviency to their religious superiors, they might readily be made the unconscious instruments of English tyranny, and might ultimately aid in eliminating the spirit of nationality from the Irish character.
Weakening the Irish Spirit
The English government and the Irish landlords (joint persecutors and plunderers of the race) care very little to what church an Irishman goes while living…The pretense to the contrary is a hollow sham, but it has a purpose. By dividing the people into hostile religious factions, and setting them to fight each other, the natural power of the Irish is greatly reduced, and the difficulty of perpetuating the enslavement of both factions is greatly lessened. Besides, one of the factions would naturally ally itself to the Protestant Government of England, while the other would as naturally ally itself to the head of the Catholic Church.
It should not be forgotten that it has always been the policy of the English Government in Ireland to foment religious dissentions there as a powerful means of perpetuating its own dominion - M. F. Sullivan (Ireland of Today)
Atrocities in Ireland Before Protestantism
That religious differences are not the cause of Irish persecution, is conclusively proved by the fact that the most cruel and barbarous persecution of the Irish people took place during and throughout the period of four hundred years before England became protestant; and while the Kings of England were the Pope's "beloved sons in Christ," as they were affectionately termed.
This anti-Irish feeling is of no modern date, and by no means owes its origin to the introduction of Protestantism. Henry VIII was a bad man, but the deadly wounds that laid Erin low were struck by the assassin hands of his Catholic forefathers.
It was this same English Catholic spirit that animated that typical English priest, Monsignor Capel, when he said at Metropolitan Hall, in this city, that, in his opinion, "the Irish famine of 1847-8 was a God's blessing.”
Daniel O'Connell, in 1813, said 'The English do not dislike us as Catholics; they simply hate us as Irish.
Under all "their Catholic Majesties," from Henry II. to Henry VIII (nearly 400 years), the Irish people, with the exception of five families, were outlaws. They were murdered at will, like dogs, by their English Catholic neighbors in Ireland, and there was no law to punish the murderers.
In 1465 an act was passed…giving rewards for the killing of Irishmen, just as with us rewards are given for the killing of coyotes; and the marriage, fostering, gossip and trade of English Catholics with Irish Catholics were made penal offenses by Catholic parliaments and Catholic kings. Under these laws, innumerable, causeless, cruel, sportive murders were committed with impunity…yet there was no excommunication and no threat of excommunication by any of the popes against the English for their hellish practices.
Vatican Assumes Political Power in 860 AD
The whole history of the Vatican shows that ever since it assumed to be the political as well as the religious head of the world (about the year 860), its universal policy has been to crush the weak; to frighten the timid and to conciliate the strong and defiant.
Robert the Bruce
In the year 1315, after the memorable Scottish victory on the field of Bannockburn, the princes and popular leaders of the Irish people invited Edward Bruce (brother of Robert Bruce) to enter Ireland and make common cause with them in their struggle for liberty. Accordingly, on May 25th of that year, Bruce landed in Ireland with six thousand veterans. These were at once joined by the Irish armies of Ulster. Castles were stormed, cities were burned, "and," says the historian, "in a very short space of time, no trace of the English remained in Ulster but the desolation of their former dwellings -(Quotes from Dolby’s History)
Their victorious armies swept over Ossory and entered Munster. Here they met with some reverses. English supremacy in Ireland had reached a crisis, and, in the supreme moment, England turned to Pope John XXII. "The English interest soon began to revive, and the Pope lent his powerful assistance to restore its ascendancy. Sentence of excommunication was solemnly pronounced against Bruce and all his adherents."
Then followed the famous battle of Dundalk, which sealed the fate of Ireland for all the succeeding centuries. The Pope's decree presided as a grim specter over the battle. "The Irish felt that they fought under the curse of the church while the English were roused by the belief that Heaven was on their side, and that the blessing pronounced on their arms by the Primate, that very morning, rendered them invincible."
The gallant Irish, who never shrank from the whistling bullets or the cold steel of their armed foes, have always withered and failed under the blighting breath of Roman curses.
So complete and demoralizing was the English victory at Dundalk, and so crushing was the vengeance dealt out to the surviving leaders and helpless people, that the Pope's personal services were not again required by England in maintaining the subjection of Ireland prior to the reformation (1534).
They knew that the movement was led by great and gifted statesmen, who fully realized their responsibility, and who, in public and in private, opposed the methods of the Carbonari and of the continental revolutionists.
The artificial famine produced by English misgovernment and landlord avarice was still upon them, and held them in its torturing grasp. On the combination rack of landlord-bred famine and famine-bred fever, the Irish people, in tens of thousands, were dying in agony, homeless and shelterless, in sight of the cabins which their own hands or the hands of their ancestors had built, but from which inhuman landlordism had evicted them, in their hour of direst affliction.
Irish famines are not NATURAL famines, they are ARTIFICIAL famines; they are not made by the Lord, but by the landlord; they are not famines of food there is always plenty of that in Ireland but famines of money with which to buy food from landlords, who have taken, the fruits of the soil as rent for land, to which they have generally no moral title – M. F. Sullivan (Ireland of Today)
In a few years," said the London Times, exultingly, "a Celtic Irishman will be as rare in Connemara as is the red Indian on the slopes of the Manhattan” – Justin McCarthy (Ireland Since the Union)
There are now about five millions of people living on the Island, and the entire land on which and from which they must live is the exclusive private property of about seventeen thousand landlords, great and small, who have the almost absolute power to determine upon what conditions and for what tribute the other millions shall be permitted to live.
Father Lavelle's great and fascinating work on "The Irish Landlord," containing five hundred and forty pages filled with terrible but well attested examples of landlord atrocity, but those which I have, here and elsewhere in this volume given, are quite sufficient to show how unnatural is the power, and how terrible is the threat, of eviction. They show the sort of knife which the seventeen thousand landlords, in good and bad seasons, hold, by legal process, to the throats of their five million Irish tenant slaves,* to enforce their extortionate demands.
Well has Mr. Gladstone called the writ of eviction a "death warrant?" But the landlord's persecution does not end with eviction. After eviction the unfortunate tenant must face the terrible "Rules of the Estate."
These rules forbid any tenant in the district giving food or shelter to any member of an evicted family, on pain of being in like manner evicted by his or her landlord…the landlords of other districts have equally stringent rules against sheltering or harboring the doomed wretches.
Justin McCarthy, an eye witness, speaking of this period (1847 to I 857) says: "Evictions took place by the hundred, by the thousand, by the ten thousand. Evictions as much for grazier's purposes as for non-payment of rent, which in those evil days of famine and failure they could not pay. Winter or summer, day or night, fair or foul weather, the tenants were ejected. Sick or well, bed-ridden or dying, the tenants men, women or children were turned out.
“seven hundred human beings were driven from their homes in one day and set adrift on the world," although "there was not a single shilling of rent due on the estate at the time except by one man…The horrid scenes, then witnessed, must remember all my life long. The wailing of women the screams, the terror, the consternation of children the speechless agony of honest industrious men wrung tears of grief from all who saw them” – Bishop Nulty of Meath
Aid from Abroad Seized
Before the condemned methods were adopted, from one million to five million dollars were annually sent to the people of Ireland by relatives and sympathizers in America, but the contributions served only to increase the rapacity and extortion of the landlords, by increasing the tenants' ability to pay the only standard by which the maximum of Irish rents is measured. Any man, not an idiot, who speaks seriously of freedom of contract between landlords and tenants in Ireland, betrays a contemptible hypocrisy that not even the mask of the Gorgon would conceal.
There was not even a scarcity of food in Ireland during the years of famine, but only a failure of the immediate crops on which the plundered tenantry depended.
The harvest of 1847 was also very abundant in Ireland, and it was one of the deadliest years of famine. The English offered thanksgivings to God for the Irish harvests, and then devoured them – (Mitchell's History, Vol.II)
Mrs. Nicholson, another eye witness, in her soul-harrowing work, "Lights and Shades of Ireland' says "What shall be said of the pitiful landlords, who were still drinking their wine, while pouring their doleful complaints into government's ears, that no rents were paid.”
"Next to the absurdity of Cork and Limerick exporting cargoes of Irish grain for sale, and at the same time receiving cargoes of American grain to be given away at the cost of the English people, may be ranked the folly, if it may not properly be called by some worse name, of seeing hundreds dying for want of food, at the same time permitting the conversion of as much grain as would feed the whole of those dying of starvation, and many more, into a fiery liquid which never saved a single life or improved a single character" – (From Nicholson” Light and Shades)
In years of of plenty as well as in years of scarcity the tenant is robbed of all the fruits of his labor, except that in good years he is left a slave's portion, enough to keep body and soul together.
Relations Made Official
…I find that in the year 1848 - the pivotal year of the Young Ireland struggle - a political privilege which had previously been denied for over three hundred years, was accorded to the Pope by an act of Parliament. By this act the Government was authorized to re-open diplomatic relations with the Pope and to receive, in regal state, a papal ambassador at the Court of St. James.
The Fenian Movement (Original)
Bishop Moriarty, of Kerry, within an hour after learning of the movement,* commenced a bitter
warfare against it. The Catholic clergy were soon denouncing it throughout Ireland as a "secret
society" unauthorized by the church.
Over this issue 'the Fenian movement, on its very threshold, was plunged into a bitter war with the ecclesiastical authorities of the Catholic Church. 'The priest has no right to interfere in or dictate our politics/ said the Fenian leaders; 'ours is a political movement; they must not question us or impede us.'
“You cannot be admitted to the sacrament until you give up and repent of illicit oaths,” responded the Catholic priests, “and if you contumaciously continue in membership of an
oath-bound secret society, you are liable to excommunication."
…cursed by the Church for loving our country.
The movement grew, and attained considerable proportions, but in face of such opposition it could not accomplish much.
In 1867 three of its promoters Allen, O'Brien and Larkin were hanged. These men died with the prayer: " God Save Ireland/' on their lips; while their gentle Christian antagonist, Bishop Moriarty, of "unimpeachable loyalty" regretted that "hell was not hot enough nor eternity long enough to punish such miscreants.
Home Rule Opposed
…the Catholic Bishop of Derry was more loyal to English rule than all of these, so he opposed
the movement, and in January, 1871, he publicly denounced it.
Land League Legislation Opposed
…the Roman Catholic Archbishop of Dublin (McCabe), in full cry with the bloodhounds of landlordism, had a pastoral letter published in the churches of his arch-diocese condemning the Land League agitation.
Lady’s Land League Condemned
In March, 1881, a Lady's Land League was formed for the most humane and Christian purpose of "raising funds, inquiring into cases of eviction, and affording relief to evicted tenants. As soon as this new organization came into existence it was assailed" by this red-cap-hunting hound of the Vatican Archbishop McCabe "as at once immodest and wicked.
American Aid Worry
…the Vatican, while still pretending to be neutral in the affairs of Ireland, was secretly interfering with the raising of funds in America, even to relieve the famine sufferers whose support had been undertaken by the Leagues.
Good Priests Silenced
In 1882, Rev. Edward McGlynn, the most eloquent and popular Catholic priest in the world,
was delivering lectures in New York for the benefit of the Leagues. Archbishop McCloskey received peremptory orders from the Vatican requiring him to compel Dr. McGlynn to desist, on pain of suspension from his priestly office. The Doctor, bowing to authority, discontinued his lectures.
Suppression of Authentic Revolutionaries
On the 20th of January, 1883, Pope Leo XIII sent a rescript to the Irish clergy commanding them to use their power to suppress certain classes of societies, the description being broad enough to include the Irish political leagues.