March of the Titans
by Arthur Kemp
March of the Titans
by Arthur Kemp
History and Geography of Human Genes
Research carried out by L. L. Cavalli-Sforza and two colleagues…in their work The History and Geography of Human Genes (1994) has revealed an astonishing 2,288 genetic point difference between White and Black Africans. The research found that the English differ from the Danes, Germans and French by a mere 21-25 points of genetic distance, whereas they differ from North American Indians by 947 points, from Black Africans by 2,288 points and from Mbuti Pygmies by 2,373 points. Cavalli-Sforza also used Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA transferred through the material line) to divide the world up into seven distinct races, classifying Whites as part of the “Caucasoid” group for his study. The vast genetic difference between the White Race and all other races, and in particular the Black Race, is a serious blow to the “Out of Africa” myth of the origin of mankind. In light of this it is hard to claim that all races have a common ancestor.
“Climatic Influence” Fallacy
If a large group of Chinese people had to move to Norway, live there for any length of time, all the while remaining (marriage and children wise) within their racial group, will anyone seriously suggest that they will “evolve” into blue eyed blond people over any period of time?
“Accident of Geography” Fallacy
Despite the similarity in environment, the Amerinds in Central America were able to build sophisticated buildings, establish written forms of communication, establish god and precious metal working and a host of other advances: while in Africa little or no progress beyond the Stone Age was made. The disparity between the Nonwhite Amerinds and the Nonwhite Africans cannot be explained by the “accident of geography.”
…the progress of North America can be compared with that of South America. North America was for the greatest part colonized by White Europeans, and subsequently became the leading power in the modern world. South America, on the other hand, having far richer natural resources than North America, was never majority colonized by White Europeans and today has a majority of mixed population. This continent is classed as Third, or at best Second World. Clearly, if environment were the only factor determining levels of achievement, South America should in theory be more advanced than North America. Having far more “environmental advantages” than North America.
White Race Beginnings
White racial history begins around the year 35,000 BC.
First Racial Types
The first racial types occurred in two main physical forms: The original Mediterranean (“Old Europeans”) who had dark or brown hair and dark eyes; and then what is called the Proto Nordic or Cro-Magnon racial type – tall, light hair and light eyes.
The Azilian “alphabet” stones, some 9,000 years old. Discovered in the south of France, archaeologists are still debating if they are writing or not. They do bear an uncanny resemblance to scripts which were developed thousands of years later. If it is writing, then it is the oldest on earth.
As the climate improved with the recession of the last great ice age, Late Paleolithic man gradually became more settled and started staying in favorable spots for longer than previously. These first fixed settlements led to a shift from a food gathering to a food cultivating society, and the appearance of crops and the domestication of animals become features of their way of life. This change in culture is called the Neolithic Age.
As a general rule, the first Neolithic settlements can be said to have been established around 10,000 BC.
The earliest farming sites in northern Europe are to be found in Ireland, occurring at approximately the same time as the cultivation of crops in the Mesopotamian River valley in the Near East.
While it is most certainly true that the great cities and states in the near and Middle East were towering achievements, it is incorrect to regard them as the only flowering of civilization in the world at that time.
First Alphabets / Knossos
In 1990, a British archaeologist, Sir Arthur Evans, rediscovered Knossos and found baked clay tablets with two types of writing, dating from around 2000 BC. These are called Linear A and Linear B scripts, possibly the oldest identifiable forms of European continental writing.
Originally called the Villanovans. Original settlers of Rome. Rome would later be known as the vagina gentium (the womb of nations)
Originally had over 40,000 inhabitants. Had a grid layout.
Celts, Germans, Balts & Slavs
All of these four major grouping arrived in the European continent in waves from around 4000 BC up to as late as 500 BC.
The word “Celt”
The word Celt itself derived from Keltoi, the mane given to the invaders by the Greek writer Herodotus. To the Romans, the Celts were known as Galli, or Gauls, and in the British Isles as the Britanni.
They were known in Turkey as the Galatians
The descendants of the Dorics were known as the Spartans and the Corinthians, two peoples to later feature dramatically in Greek history.
The time of the Dorian Age is known to historians as the Homeric Age, because little is known about it except from the writings of the poet Homer, in his epic poems the Illiad and the Odyssey
In the Illiad, Homer described the Indo-Europeans Acheans…as “bright eyed,” “fair-headed,” “fair” and “tall”
Originally the Slavs were a virtually pure Indo-European peoples, and only later were certain elements of the Slavic population to the very east mixed to a small degree.
Other Indo-European Tribes
Scythians, Goths, Philistines, Cimmerians, Phyrgians, Persians, Medes.
None of these tribes – all originally Nordic – managed to survive intact in the Middle East.
A lost civilization in China, were the maintainers of the Silk Road
The lost white civilization of Japan.
Lost white tribes of the Canary Islands, build Maya style pyramids
So-called divine white skinned race remembered by the Incas in Peru, thought to be the creators of Machu Picchu and the Nazca Lines
The fall of the Persian Empire marks the end of the great majority White civilizations in the Near East….Persia was overrun by the Arabic Muslims in 651 AD,
The period 2270-2060 BC was marked by great instability in Egypt…Only in the year 2060 BC was Egypt again politically united and once again rose to its old Kingdom splendor, although never again managing to build anything the size of the Great Pyramids of Giza.
Professor James Henry Breasted
Professor of Egyptology and Oriental History, in his work “History of Egypt” – details that the pharaohs were not Black but White.
Rise and Fall of Nations
Why is it that Japan, Sweden, England, and Germany (as examples), all nations with limited natural resources, can have progressive active cultures after more than 2,000 years- and then why did such mighty nations as Rome, Greece, Persia, India, Portugal, and even Spain produce active vibrant civilizations for a few centuries, and then fall, never to rise again?
A civilization “rises and falls” therefore by its racial homogeneity and nothing else.
If…the society within any particular given area changes its racial makeup – through invasion, immigration or any decline in numbers – then he civilization which that society has produced will disappear with them, to be replaced by a new civilization reflecting the new civilization.
It is around the year 500 BC, that the first great turning point in White history was reached. This was the decline of the first great White civilization in the Middle and near East.
The Hellenes / Hellenic Age
This is the name the Greeks used for themselves. The Romans used the word Greeks.
From the years 460 BC to 429 BC, Athens and many Grecian cities went through what is now known as its Golden Age. Athens was under the leadership of an immensely popular leader named Pericles, who, although a democrat (in the limited Athenian sense of the word – only adult males were allowed to vote), was most certainly under no illusion of the potential threat to his society posed by the influx of Nonwhite people.
431 BC to 431 BC. It was the immediate cause of the collapse of military might in Classical Greece.
In 411 BC, forty years after Pericles had enacted his law limiting citizenship to those of biological Athenian descent only, the law was turned on its head and citizenship of Athens was given to tens of thousands of foreigners who had entered Athens, particularly from the Middle East, with the argument being used that the city state had to make up the huge population losses suffered as a result of the Persian and inter-Grecian wars.
Aristotle made copious references to the fairness of the Scythians and the Macedonians. Most modern White Greeks have very little or none of the original classical Grecian blood in their veins, and are descendants of later settlers, Crusaders and other invaders.
Founded in Egypt in 332 BC, by Alexander the Great.
The period 320 BC – 30 BC, is known as the Alexandrian age, and contributed three major philosophies to Western civilization: Epicureanism, Stoicism and Skepticism.
A Celtic tribe crossing the Alps around 2000 BC.
Settled in Italy by 800 BC. Rome was settled in 753 BC.
With the elimination of Greek bases in Italy itself, only the city of Carthage on the North African coast served as a power which could seriously threaten further Roman expansion. Carthage had been founded around the year 800 BC by the mixed Mediterranean/Semitic Phoenicians, and had become an independent and powerful force in its own right.
The Latin word for Phoenicia was Punicus – from which the word Punic was to derive, and the wars against Carthage are called the Punic wars.
The Second Punic War is also known as Hannibal’s war, named after the great Carthaginian general who, after a long epic campaign, very nearly routed the power of Rome.
New Carthage (Africa & Asia)
Named by the Romans.
At the end of the Third Punic War, the Romans physically occupied what is today known as Tunisia and refounded a new city of Carthage – a Roman one. They called it the province of “Africa” – a name which later was used to refer to the entire continent. In this same manner, Roman conquests in the east led to the creation of the Roman province of “Asia” – once again a Roman name became the name of an entire continent.
Patrician and Plebeians
Internally, Rome had become increasingly divided…In 121 BC, after a particularly severe outbreak of civil violence…Gaius Gracchus committed suicide.
Took over after Alexander’s death, as he had no son successor.
From General Ptolemy established the Ptolemaic reign in Egypt from 323 to 30 BC. Cleopatra VII was the most famous queen of this time, and won her fame due to her relationships with Julius Caesar and Mark Anthony.
The Roman army subsequently defeated Cleopatra and Anthony’s combined forces.
In 146 BC, Macedonia and Greece became direct Roman provinces, and in 64 BC, the Seleucid empire was conquered by the Roman Emperor Pompey.
Keeper of the Library of Alexandria. (276-195 BC).
By this time…two other great generals had also emerged, each with their own armies: Pompey and Julius Caesar…Caesar crossed the Rubicon river in 49 BC, irrevocably committing himself to war with Pompey.
Although the most famous of the Romans, Caesar in fact only ruled for five years, from 49 to 44 BC. His period of rule was marked by a dramatic expansion in the size of the Roman influence.
At the end of century of civil strife (133-30 BC) Rome was finally united under one ruler. Thereafter ensued what became known as the Pax Romana, the Peace of Rome, which lasted for well on 200 years…This time was also to mark the racial undoing of the Empire, caused by the long term effects of the inclusion of foreign lands and peoples under the aegis of the Roman Empire.
Upon Octavian’s victorious return to Rome in 29 BC, the senate conferred upon him the title of honorable (Augustus) or August, a name by which he became known thereafter. Octavian Augustus held no official government position in Rome after 23 BC, but still was almost absolute ruler of Rome until his death in 14 AF, through the Roman army, of which he remained supreme leader, or imperator (from which the word Emperor came).
Racial Hygiene under Augustus
An overt attempt to preserve the Roman bloodline had in fact been made by Octavian Augustus. He issued several decrees prescribing heavy penalties for celibacy or for marriages with slaves or the descendants of slaves.
Upon Octavian Augustus’ death, he was followed by four descendants of his family, called the Julio-Claudian family. The first two, Tiberius and Claudius, were just and efficient, and it was during Claudius’ reign that the occupation of Britain, began by Julius Caesar some 100 years earlier, was completed (in 43 AD).
The third Julio-Claudian emperor was the famous Caligula, who reputed to have gone insane.
The fourth Julio-Claudian emperor…best known for his persecutions of the Christians by throwing them to the lions.
A brief power struggle erupted on Nero’s death, and Flavius Vespasianus (also known as Vespian) assumed power in 69 AD…the Flavian Dynasty lasted until 96 AD
Following the Flavian line came the Antonines – or the “five good emperors” who ruled from 96 AD to 180 AD.
The first of these was the Emperor Nerva who ruled from 96 AD to 180 AD…Nerva was also the first emperor to allow members of the Roman senate to be chosen from all over the Empire – which at that stage was still vast, extending into territories which many centuries earlier had last seen a White majority population.
The next emperor was Trajan, who ruled from 98 AD to 117 AD. Under Trajan the empire reached its peak in terms of territorial expansion, but by this time huge numbers of racially foreign peoples had begun to fill not only virtually all of the non continental European Roman colonies, but had started to appear in significant numbers in Rome itself.
Servus, Caracalla and Mongrelization of Roman People
Servus himself was unremarkable, but his son, Caracalla, who ruled from 211 AD to 217 AD, was the Roman emperor who finally opened the racial flood-gates on the Roman Empire and sealed its fate…Caracalla passed an edict giving all free males within the Empire citizenship of Rome.
When Caesar occupied the Gaulish town of Avaricum…he ordered all 40,000 inhabitants put to death.
212 AD – Roman Britain
By 212 AD, the Romans were firmly entrenched in England (as opposed to Britain) and the process of Romanization was well under way. This was speeded up by the edict of Caracalla in 212 AD granting Roman citizenship to all free inhabitants of the Empire, and the resultant legalization of the already de facto situation of soldiers taking wives from the local population.
Control over the far flung empire became more remote, till finally around 400 AD, Rome had de facto lost control over their northernmost province. By this time Britain was experiencing a new wave of Nordic invaders – the Saxons and other Teutonic peoples sweeping in from Northern and Central Europe.
In the second century AD, German tribes went on the offensive against Rome and crossed the Danube. They were bloodily defeated by a Roman army which had a significant number of these Germans and Celtic mercenaries in it, led by Marcus Aurelius.
Pontifex Maximus (Chief Priest)
After Octavian, all the Roman emperors were known by the title of Pontifex Maximus – “chief priest” – or whatever particular cult happened to be the most popular at the time.
While being ruled by the Seleucids many Jews began to take on the ways and even language of their rulers: Greek. This led them into conflict with the more nationalistic Jews, and a minor skirmish broke out between the two groups of Jews in 168 BC. This provoked the Seleucids into responding. They ordered the Jewish temple in Jerusalem to be stripped of its Judaic artifacts and dedicated to the worship of the Greek god Zeus. The Jews rebelled against this order, and after a military conflict, were able to exact a recognition of Jewish independence from the Seleucid representative in Syria in 142 BC, although proper independence is said to have started in 129 BC. The leader of the Jewish rebels was one Judas Maccabeus, and he became the first Jewish king in Palestine, creating the Maccabean dynasty which lasted until 64 BC.
Romans invited into Palestine 64 BC
Like so many other states in the region, the Jewish state was continually racked by internal dissent and rebellion, and in the midst of a self imposed civil war, certain Jews appealed for help from the Roman General Pompey…Pompey agreed to help – although this meant occupying Palestine as a Roman protectorate in 64 BC.
Rise of Herod
True to long established practice, the Romans immediately began trying to Romanize the Jews and recruiting locals to run the province – in this way the Roman senate appointed the Jew Herod as king of Judea in 37 BC. He ruled until his death in 4 BC. Even during the reign of King Herod, the Jewish state was still racked by internal dissension and it fell apart after his death, being then ruled in part by Roman governors.
…in 66 AD, the Jews rebelled against Roman rule. In that year the Roman garrison in Jerusalem was slaughtered and a revolt spread to all parts of the province. The Jewish hatred for the original Roman Empire was well documented, to the point where the famous English historian Edward Gibbon, in his classic work “The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire” …had the following to say:
From the reign of Nero to that of Antonious Pious, the Jews discovered a fierce impatience with the dominance of Rome, which repeatedly broke out in the most furious massacres and insurrections. Humanity is shocked at the recital of horrid cruelties which they committed in the cities of Egypt, of Cyria, and of Cyrene, where they dwelt in treacherous friendship with the unsuspecting natives; and we are tempted to applaud the severe retaliation which was exercised by the arms of the Legions against a race of fanatics whose dire and credulous superstition seemed to render them the implacable enemies not only of the Roman government but of all human kind.
The Roman Emperor Constantine (208-337 AD) while engaged in a battle with a rival claimant to the throne in 312 AD claimed to have had a vision of a cross in the sky above which were written the words “In Hoc Signo Vinces” – In this sign you will win. He allegedly took this as a sign from the Christian God that he would win if he converted to Christianity.
Edict of Milan (Birth of Christianity)
Constantine went on to issue the Edict of Milan in 313 AD, which legalized Christianity throughout the Empire and placed it on par with all other religions – and he himself as emperor, became Pontifex Maximus of Christianity in particular. With the conversion of the Emperor of Rome to Christianity, the by now established pattern of following the emperor’s lead in religious matters came to play, and almost overnight Christianity became one of the most popular religions within the Roman Empire.
Julian was no Christian, and simply overturned Constantine’s adoption of Christianity as the state religion. In doing so this, Julian officially declared the pagan religions to once again be the official Roman state religion, relegating Christianity to cult status once again…After Julian’s death, however, the next emperor was again a Christian, and converted the empire back into a formal Christian state The result was that from the year 395 AD Christianity became the legal sole and official religion of the Roman Empire…nearly 400 years after the leader whose name it tool was alleged to have lived.
The Rise of the Bishops
Each major town throughout the Roman world was assigned a Christian leader, called a Bishop. Gradually, the Bishop of Rome came to be recognized as the most important and assumed the title of “pope.”
King Ptolemy’s Old Testament
The books now contained in the Old Testament were largely oral before 300 BC, although some had been written down by Jewish rabbis. Through contact with the Jews is Ptolemaic Egypt, King Ptolemy II Philadelphus (285-246 BC) is credited with ordering the translation of the Jewish religious books into Greek. The Christian version of the Old Testament was only established as a comprehensive work by the scribe Origen around 250 AD, and up until that time only loose translations of the Ptolemaic Greek work formed the bases of Christian teaching.
Christianity spreads to Britain
The Catholic Church sent a missionary, St. Augustine, to Britain from Rome in 597 AD, and managed to convert the first Anglo Saxon ruler to Christianity, causing Roman Catholicism to spread throughout Britain.
In 768, Charlemagne started a 32 year long campaign of what can only be described as genocidal evangelism against the Saxons under his control in western Germany. The campaign started with the cutting down of the Saxon’s most sacred tree, their version of the World Tree…In 772, at Quierzy, he issued a proclamation that he would kill every Saxon who refused to accept Jesus Christ, and from that time on he kept a special detachment of Christian priests who doubled as executioners, and in every Saxon village in which they stopped, these priests would execute anybody who refused to be baptized. Then in 782, at Verden, Charlemagne carried out the act for which he is most notoriously associated – he ordered the beheading of 4,500 Saxons in one day who had made the error of being caught practicing paganism after they had agreed to be Christians.
His onsite biographer, the monk Einhard records that after these beheading: “the king went into winter camp, and there celebrated mass as usual…”
The Teutonic Knights
The only significant group of Whites left in Europe who were not…Christians by the year 1000 AD were to be found in the Baltic and Eastern European regions. To destroy this last bastion of paganism the Church employed the service of some of the most fanatic Christians of all – The Teutonic Knights…originally a religious military order founded during the Crusades, being first established in Palestine in 1190…The Teutonic Knights jumped at the chance, and by using violence and mass murder, soon became known as effective Christianizers of among the pagan Whites of Eastern Europe. This genocidal evangelism soon became the sole obsession of the Teutonic Knights – by 1226 the order had set up permanent settlements in north-eastern Europe.
In 568 AD, the third significant population shift in Italian history occurred (the first was the invasion of the Indo-European Latini – the second was the filling up of Rome with Nonwhite races – another Germanic tribe, the Lombards, poured into Italy over the Alps, establishing a new kingdom, replenishing the Nordic racial stock in northern and central Italy. It was the Lombards who provided the impetus for the later north Italian Renaissance movement.
Decline of Rome
…the seven million original Romans were overrun within a relatively short space f time by the 113 million foreigners. The Roman Empire disappeared because the Romans themselves disappeared.
This is the name for the Eastern Roman Empire. Constantinople was its capital in 330 AD.
On all fronts the Byzantines were once again in retreat – as the Muslim armies prepared for a final assault on the city Constantinople, the Eastern Emperor, Alexius I, appealed to the Pope in Rome for aid against the Turks. This appeal was acceded to: the result was the start of one of the longest running race wars in history, between the Whites in Western Europe on the one hand and the mixed race Arabic/Black armies of Islam on the other hand.
The Crusades would last 275 years, from 1095 to 1270 AD
Constantinople finally fell to the Muslim armies in 1453 AD, marking the end of the Eastern Roman Empire.
Started by an Arab, Mohammed, (570-632 AD) in the Arabian peninsula (today’s Saudi Arabia) around the year 590 AD, Islam is essentially a reworking of Judaism and Christianity (the Muslim God Allah, is identified in the Muslim holy book, the Koran, as the same one in Judaism and Christianity) and all three religions share many of the same Old Testament characters such as Jacob, etc,…Mohammed gained his knowledge of Judaism and Christianity from his Jewish wife.
The First Crusade
By the time they got to Constantinople however, the wonder on the European faces must have been apparent – they appeared to have as little in common with the Byzantine Empire than with the Muslims, not only racially, but even in language. The Byzantine Christians did not recognize the Pope, spoke Greek instead of Latin and had distinctly Middle Eastern art and architectural forms.
Founded in Turkey by Alexander the Great, it was the third most important city in the world, under the Roman Empire.
…was called by Pope Eugenius III. This time a large number of Christian sovereigns themselves joined the crusade…
It was a total failure, and several armies turned back mid way.
The Knights of St. John of Jerusalem (Hospitalers) and the Poor Knights of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (called Templars) were part of the second Crusade
…three White Christain announced their personal intentions of joining the fray: Richard I, the Lion-Hearted of England; Philip II of France; and Frederick I, called Frederick Barbarossa, the Holy Roman Emperor. Frederick Barbarossa, old and famous, died in 1189 on the way to Palestine and most of his army returned to Germany following his death. Philip II and his army returned in 1191, not having achieved any significant military success – only Richard remained to do battle with the Nonwhites…When Richard left the Middle East in 1192, a large part of Palestine – with the exception of Jerusalem – was back in Christian hands.
Fell apart before it began. The ruler of Venice agreed to transport French and Flemish Crusaders to Palestine-for a fee. Unable to pay this fee, the Crusaders struck a deal with the Venetians – they would help the Venetians to attack one of the city state’s rivals, Zara, a Hungarian trading port on the Adriatic…When Innocent III learned of the deal, he excommunicated the Crusaders…
Instead of fighting, Frederick II landed his impressive army and through of negotiations and blackmail with his army standing ready, actually managed to negotiate a peace treaty with the Muslims. In terms of this treaty, Jerusalem was returned to the Christians and a ten year cessation of hostilities was agreed.
In 1248, King Louis IX of France undertook a personal six year long crusade.
Muslims Invade Spain
In 711 AD, the Nonwhite Muslim invasion finally reached Spain, having swept up out of the Saudi-Arabian peninsula, conquering Egypt, Libya, Tunisia and North Africa to the Gibraltar Straits. Launching a ferocious assault across the narrow strait, the Muslim defeated the Gothic kingdom in stages and managed to establish what became known as Moorish rule over the greatest part of Spain and Portugal, with only the very northern parts remaining in Gothic hands – Page 151
The Moors had occupied Spain for over 700 years.
The expression comes from Spain, and refers to the original Visigoth rulers.
The Spanish word for gentleman, hildago, in fact means the “son of the Goth.”
Was part Jewish. He was merely anti-Communist, but was not fascist.
Frankish king of France 732 AD…Mobilized the counter attack against the Moors. Defeat would have meant that all of Western Europe might have fallen under the sway of Islam
Ferdinand and Isabella
It was only with the rise of two great leaders – the red-haired Isabella (1451-1504) queen of Castile, and Ferdinand V, king of Aragon, that the Moors were finally driven from Europe.
France and Clovis
Frankish king Clovis converted to Christianity in 496 AD, and invaded the Visigoth Empire causing them to abandon the part of France they occupied.
He made the mistake of dividing the country between his sons.
Charles Martel, put an end to this division, and became the sole leader of the Franks.
Pepin the Short
Son of Charles Martel, reigned from 741 to 768 AD, he received from the Bishop of Rome a sanction to be the sole ruler of France. This was the first of the times in which the Pope would approve leaders of states.
The real reason for the Pope’s friendliness to Pepin was that the Christian Bishop felt in need of some allies, as the Germanic Lombards were by this stage pouring into Italy and threatening Rome itself.
In 768, Pepin’s son Charlemagne (Charles the Great) inherited the Frankish kingdom. Taking advantage of feuding amongst the Moors in Spain, Charlemagne’s first act was to create a buffer state between the Moors and France…after killing thousands of pagans, Charlemagne managed to create a virtually uniform Christian kingdom…In this way Charlemagne built up an empire which consisted of much of today’s modern France and Germany establishing as his court the centrally located city Aix-La-Chapelle, or Aachen, as it was known in Germany.
Charlemagne’s son Louis the Pious was a weak ruler and divided the kingdom amoungst his sons Charles, Lothaine, and Louis.
This division of land amongst the three children was the cause of the centuries long struggle between their heirs. Charles’ territory became France, Louis’ territory became western Germany and Lothaine’s territory became the disputed land of Alsace Lorraine, over which the Germans and French fought many wars.
Treaty of Verdun
The political divisions between the emerging French and Germans were sealed at the Treaty of Verdun in 843, which ended infighting amongst the three brothers and mapped each one’s territory. This treaty gave political recognition to the cultural and linguistic division taking place with the Rhine river as the border.
Pope in France
In 1305, Philip managed to arrange for a French Pope, Clement V, to be elected – the first non-Italian Pope since the Church had been founded. Clement V immediately moved the papal court from Rome to Avignon in France, provoking a major split and crisis in the Church.
The Hundred Years War
In 1337, England and France went to war after English king Edward III issued a claim on the English throne. The war, which became known as the Hundred Year’s War, lasted from 1337 to 1453.
Battle of Agincourt
In 1415, the English king, Henry V, launched a new invasion of France and defeated the French at the famous Battle of Agincourt in that year, won by a new secret weapon, the longbow, which gave the English archers a vastly superior range for their weapons.
In the midst of the defeats suffered at the hands of the English, France was also particularly badly affected by the outbreak of the Black Death – the bubonic plague – in 1438, which killed and estimated one-third of France’s population. The plague returned in 1361, 1362, 1369, 1372, 1382, 1388 and 1398.
The Reformation (and the Hugenots)
The advent of the Protestant rebellion against Catholicism spread to France as well, provoking a series of Christian wars fought between Roman Catholics and French Protestant, known as Hugenots.
Edicts of Nantes
The wars ended in 1598, when the French King of the time Henry IV, issued the Edict of Nantes, which granted freedom of religion in France.
Louis XIII (and Cardinal Richelieu)
The next French king, Louis XIII, became famous only for appointing a more famous prime minister, Armand du Plessis, also known as Cardinal de Richelieu, who became the de facto ruler of France for 18 years. Richelieu was an adept statesman, firmly entrenching the power of the king’s office through the breaking down of the feudal system and the power of the regional nobility.
Thirty Year’s War
However, Richelieu’s efforts were largely undone by the outbreak of the Thirty Year’s War which started in 1618 with the Treaty of Westphalia. The Thirty Year’s war started out as a peasant revolt in Bohemia related to the Catholic/Protestant divide and spread to involve almost all European countries, fighting either on the Catholic or Protestant sides. The French took the opportunity to simultaneity try and eliminate their growing rivals, the royal house of Habsburg in Germany, an aim in which they failed. The war also financially exhausted France, and the country was teetering on economic collapse when the five year old Louis XIV inherited the throne upon his father’s death in 1643.
Slide Into Chaos
The French nobility and kings after Louis XIV became ever more despotic and mismanaged the economy, leading to a large degree of impoverishment. The French kings also became increasingly anti-Jewish, in line with other fanatical Catholic nations, and restrictions on Jews and activities became ever tighter.
All of these wars further strained the French economy and when Louis XVI ascended to the throne in 1774, the country was in urgent need of economic and social reform. Louis XVI refused to attend to the problems, giving the anarchists in French society the chance to capitalize upon the growing dissent with royal rule.
The wars which have been called Napoleonic Wars were essentially a continuation of the wars resulting from the Revolution, through which the Habsburgs of Austria and other royal houses in Europe combined in an effort to overthrow the revolutionary government of France and restore the French monarchy.
Napoleon (France’s most famous Italian)
He was Genoese. His father was a Corsican nobleman.
The First Coalition – Allies try to stop French Revolutionary ideals spreading
In the War of the First Coalition, fought from 1783 to 1797, France fought against an alliance consisting of Austria, Prussia, Great Britain, Spain, the Netherlands, and the Kingdom of Sardinia. All of these kingdoms had ganged up on France in an attempt to stop the anti-monarchial ideals of the French Revolution spreading to their own lands. In 1796, Napoleon was appointed in charge of conducting the war against Austrian forces in northern Italy. In less than a year, Napoleon had led his troops to victory over the larger Austrian army.
The Second Coalition
A Second Coalition, consisting of Russia, Great Britain, Austria, the kingdom of Naples, Portugal, and the Ottoman Empire was formed to fight in France in December 1798…The Austrians and Russian defeated French forces in northern Italy (Napoleon was in Egypt at this time)
In Italy, Napoleon made his elder brother, Joseph Bonaparte, king of Naples in 1806 and king of Spain in 1808. He made his third brother, Louis Bonaparte, king of Holland.
End of the Holy Roman Empire
..on July 12, he established the Confederation of the Rhine, which eventually consisted of all the states of Germany except Austria, Prussia, Brunswick, and Hessen. The formation of the Confederation put an end to the Holy Roman Empire and brought most of modern day Germany under Napoleon’s control.
Battle of Trafalgar
Although utterly victorious on land, Napoleon’s navy was crushed by the superior English navy at the October 1805 battle off Cape Trafalgar, where the English Admiral Horatio Nelson defeated a combined French and Spanish fleet, although Nelson himself was killed at the height of the battle.
In 1806, Prussia, aroused by Napoleon’s growing strength in Germany, joined in a Fourth Coalition with Great Britain, Russia, and Sweden. Napoleon crushed a Prussian army at the October 1806 Battle of Jena and followed this up by capturing Berlin itself. Turning on the Russians, Napoleon then defeated the Russian army in the Battle of Friedland, forcing them to make peace by Treaty of Tilsit. In terms of this treaty Russia gave up its Polish possessions and became an ally of France. Prussia was deprived of half its territory and crippled by heavy indemnity payments and severe restrictions on the size of its standing army.
The Fifth Coalition
The British, safe from Napoleon’s armies because of their mastery of the sea, organized yet another alliance against France, known as the Fifth Coalition. The first result…was a war with Austria.
The Russians were defeated at Borodino and the French army marched into Moscow on 14 September 1812, suffering frightful losses along the way - of the original army of 422,000 only 100,000 men were left to occupy Moscow. The Russians had however burned the city, making it impossible for Napoleon’s troops to establish winter quarters there. Forced to retreat in temperatures dropping to -30 degrees below zero, the French army was destroyed, with a shattered 10,000 men reaching their jumping off point at the end of the campaign…Sensing that Napoleon had badly overplayed his hand, the Fifth Coalition drew up its forces – Russia, Prussia, and Sweden then joined the Fifth Coalition.
The Fifth Coalition – Battle of Dresden
In 1883, Prussia renewed hostilities against Napoleon who, despite his army being weakened, managed to pull off the last military victory of his career, defeating the Prussians at the Battle of Dresden in August 1813….100,000 men defeated a combined Austrian, Prussian, and Russian force of about 150,000. The overwhelming numbers of the enemy combined with Napoleon’s shrinking capacity however could not hold off the inevitable – in October 1814, he was defeated at the Battle of Leipzig and forced to leave all of Germany…In 1814, France itself was invaded, and in March of that year a combined Russian, Austrian and Prussian force took Paris. Napoleon abdicated and was exiled to the island of Elba in the Mediterranean Sea.
Congress of Vienna and Waterloo
While the victors of the Fifth Coalition assembled at the Congress of Vienna to restore the monarchies Napoleon had overthrown, Napoleon escaped from Elba and landed in France, where, despite the defeats he had suffered and the staggering population losses his wars had caused he was welcomed back. Through the sheer power of his personality he raised yet another army and marched into Belgium to do battle with the stunned British, Russians, and Austrians. Initially, Napoleon defeated the combined allied armies at the Battle of Ligny, but was then defeated twice in succession at Quatre-Bras and then in June 1815 at the famous Battle of Waterloo. Captured, Napoleon was exiled to the island of St. Helena in the South Atlantic where he died in 1821, most likely as a result of poisoning.
The legacy left by Napoleon for Europe is considerable. The direct result of his wars was that the nation of the Netherlands came into existence, as well as a number of German and Italian states, as well as Switzerland.
Napoleon’s own personal goal for Europe was to found a single European state like the United States of America, what he called a “federation of free peoples.”
The British Empire
Extended over every country in the world except Antarctica.
Throughout the fourth century, Roman Britain was subjected to ever increasing raids from Saxons and other pagan Germanics. In 367 AD, a possibly coordinated offensive by Saxons from the mainland of Europe, Scots from Scotland and Irish Celts, very nearly displaced the Romans: another Roman army had to be rushed to the island from Roman Europe. It took three years before the invasion was beaten off.
The Danish Jutes Arrive
In 425 AD, a Roman British aristocrat, Vortigen, became leader of the British, and took a decision which was to change the future of Britain – he formally invited into Britain a group of Germanics from Denmark, known as the Jutes under their chief Hengist. Vortigen hoped to gain the Jutes as allies in his wars against the by then constant attacks by the Pictish Celts from across the northern border. In return for their military aid, Vortigen told the Jutes, he would give them land in what is now Ken in southern England. The offer was accepted – but the Jutes brought with them a horde of their racial cousins, including the dreaded Saxons and a number of other Germanic tribes – the Angles from Denmark, some Franks, Frisians and other Germans from the lower Rhine area. In an act of extreme irony large numbers of Saxons were allowed to settle unmolested in Britain – Vortigen got a lot more Germans than he had bargained for…In 442 the first clashes took place, and ten years later Vortigen was defeated by Hengist. The Germanics then started to occupy and subjugate large areas in Britain, eventually displacing all the Romanized Britons. The Angles and Saxons gave their name to the country they had won.
For the next 500 years, sporadic waves of new Germanic settlers moved into Britain. While the original Britons either pushed into the western reaches of the country, Cornwall and Wales (Welsch being the name the invading Germans applied to the Romanized Britons). Some Britons fled across the English Channel to France, settling in what became known as Brittany for that reason.
Loss of Christianity
Whatever resistance occurred, was however suppressed and by 600 AD, most of the former Roman Britain…had been colonized by the Angles and Saxons and their Germanic cousins. The Romano-Celtic culture, which included Christianity, was driven into the far corners of the land, and eight major kingdoms had been established, along with a host of smaller principalities. It became customary for one of these major kingdoms to be designated as supreme king, and to have primacy as leader of Britain…It was only some 150 years after the last Germanic invasions, that the Christian Church dared to send any large numbers of missionaries back into Germanic occupied England. This occurred after one of the bretwaldas, King Ethelbert married a Frankish princess from France, and she persuaded him to allow missionaries from Rome back into Britain. Ethelbert himself, no doubt under pressure from his wife, converted to Christianity in 587 AD and by 664 AD, the last Germanic kingdom, in Northumbria under king Oswy became Christian.
Alfred the Great (and the United Kingdom)
In 871, Alfred became king of Wessex, becoming what many regard as England’s greatest king. At the time he became king, the Danes and Vikings were busy with large scale invasions of England. In 878 AD, Alfred inflicted a severe defeat on a large army of invading Danes, forcing he invaders to accept a division of England into two parts, the kingdom of Wessex, and the region known as the Danelaw (Essex, East Anglia, Northumbria)…Alfred managed to capture the city of London from the Danes, but the final defeat of the Danes was only managed by his grandson in 991. The conquest of the Danelaw saw the first united kingdom in England.