Catholic Imperialism & World Freedom
by Avro Manhattan
Catholic Imperialism & World Freedom
by Avro Manhattan
Nero, Caligula, Diocletian, Constantine, Julian the Apostate, and all the many other emperors, protectors or haters of Christianity came and went, but the Popes remained - AM
The Beast Never Dies
The Popes witnessed the birth of Constantinople and the collapse of the Roman Empire, the sacking of Rome and the oncoming of the Barbarians the extinguishers of the civilization of the West. They dealt with the Huns and the Vandals, with the Avars and the Goths, and with all the numberless destroyers of culture pounding upon the ancient world as pitilessly and as terribly as the scourge of God. They saw idols in Mecca, heard the voice of a one-time camel-driver chanting in distant Arabia a strange, irresistible chant "There is no other God than God, and Mahomet is his Prophet" echoing like thunder to the marching of the armies of the caliphs rolling to the conquest of the East, burning with a faith made invincible by the sword and by the message of the Koran.
The Catholic Church is not, perhaps, endowed with all the qualifications of a modern political unit. For instance, her members do not live within well-marked geographical boundaries; she has no armed forces or industrial means of production with which to extend her influence; she is not run on the same administrative basis as are modern States; and it would appear that her members, scattered throughout the world and with their loyalty due to their respective countries, would be unable to organize themselves into a single supranational political force. If these were the characteristics of a modern State, such a State would suffer from a tremendous handicap. But in the case of the Catholic Church it is just in these characteristics that her strength lies.
The Catholic is supported by 400,000,000 beings; a monolithic unit, exceeding the U.S.A. and the Soviet Union in numbers, unity, leadership and faith.
...the Catholic Church, consumed by Cimmerian dreams of formidable expansion, is biding her time to enforce her dominion upon the human race. Not only as a spiritual, but also as a political power, buttressed by the unshakable conviction that it is her destiny to conquer the planet.
Unlike other faiths, she has never restricted her activities to the regions where she was predominant. Limitations o any kind have constantly been ignored. The very right of existence of other religions has always been wholly disregarded indeed, trampled underfoot or by-passed.
Mental Reservation (Double-Speak)
Mental reservation has been invented to enable Catholics to pretend they can be loyal citizens of any State, whether democratic or totalitarian, without bothering their consciences, by betraying themselves and the State, in order to be loyal to the Catholic Church.
Mental reservation falls into two categories: (a) Equivocation, and (b) mental reservation proper. The greatest authority in this field is Saint Alphonsus Liguori who was canonized in 1835. His Moral Theology is the recognized text-book on all questions of conscience. Other books on the subject, such as those of Gury, Dens, Stradler, and others, including contemporary American Catholic theological writers, are little more than extracts from his work. St. Alphonsus, quoted and requoted by the Popes, teaches Catholics how to avoid, when necessary, giving allegiance to the State while pretending to do so; and, while fulfilling their duty as citizens, remain the faithful members of the Church, and thus not betray the obedience they owe to her to fight the State.
To swear with equivocation when there is a just cause is not evil, "declares the Father of Catholic Morality," because where there is just cause for concealing the truth and it is concealed without a lie, no detriment is done to the oath ... in the clear understanding of what is said here...many distinctions are necessary. In the first place we are to distinguish that one is 'double speaking' or equivocation, and the other mental reservation.
Catholics, therefore, can safely cheat a democracy or any civil authority, a dictatorship or, indeed, anyone, provided they do it for a "just cause."
The Catholic Church is neither genuine religion nor true Christianity. It is the repository of a formidable homogeneous will, self-sufficient, impersonal, ruthless, and omnipotent; the sum of a hoary ecclesiasticism contaminated by the most unscrupulous tyranny in the world; the creature of a vindictive theology and of a most vitiated orthodoxy, rooted in a vanished military dominion whose dreams she has transmuted into one of imperial global dimensions.
Supremacy of the Pope
Papal pride feeds upon its own uniqueness. The Pope's voice, as Pius XII declared, "is the voice of the centuries, the voice of eternity." It cannot be otherwise,
The Pope is held to be not only the king of sovereigns and monarchs : he is more than a mortal being, and only a little less than God.
The most famous of such claims, however, is that made by Pope Boniface VIII, who, in his celebrated bull, Unam Sanctam, develops the classic idea of the two swords. According to this conception, God has ordained two principalities on earth, typified by the secular sword and the spiritual sword, those of Kingship and Papacy. But of these two swords the
lower is in subordination to the higher, King is under Pope," temporal authority is subject to the spiritual." Hence the secular sword must be wielded for the Church's progress whenever the Roman Pontiff invokes it. As an outward sign of this, Boniface was always preceded by two swords, carried before him as symbols of the Pope's dual majesty. The authority of secular rulers does not derive from the citizens but from the Church, declared Innocent IV.
But where the Papacy surpassed itself in its claim to universal rulership over all mankind was in the dogmatic definition given by one of its most formidable Popes, Boniface VIII, who, in one of the most famous documents of Catholicism, explicitly asserted that no human being could be saved unless he were a subject of the Pope:
We declare, define, establish and decree that every human creature, under the rigid necessity of saving his soul, must fa subject to the Roman Pontiff.
Are these only the teachings of the Popes of the Middle Ages? Not at all. These are the doctrines of the Popes of the last and of the present century. Indeed, the modern Popes, far from discarding such claims, have solemnly added others no less incredible. The modern Popes, in fact, have in addition declared themselves the direct mouthpieces of God and, like God, infallible.
The Popes today, by claiming more forcibly than their predecessors, that all baptized individuals are their subjects, assert with unheard-of arrogance that all Protestants must look upon them as their teachers and their masters.
Lords of Bodies and Souls
The Popes claim the rulership of, in addition to this planet, the next fife. In virtue of the power of the keys, they say they can lock or unlock the gates of hell, commit individuals, communities, and whole generations either to its eternal flames or to the splendor of heaven. They are lords, not only of the bodies, but also of the souls of men; not only of their present, but also of their future, both in this and in the world to come. More, the Popes have jurisdiction in heaven itself. The heavenly hosts indeed, their very angelic leaders must bow to their decrees. Fantastic theological aberrations of some Pontiff of the darkest Middle Ages? By no means. Just a routine claim of the Popes of the twentieth century. Such Papal omnipotence, in fact, to the incredulity of the cynics and no less, one feels sure, to the astonishment of the angelic being concerned was exercised by Pope Pius XII, when, by means of a Papal Brief issued on April 2, 1951, he officially promoted the Archangel Gabriel to the rank of supreme supervisor of all the telephones and telephonists, television sets and television fans, of the world.
Our Way Or Else
...the Catholic Church does not confine herself to the exclusive monopoly of the religious allegiance of men. With deliberate vampiric deadliness, she goes further, by claiming that human society, in virtue of her being the unique repository of truth, must be erected only upon truth that is to say, upon her doctrines.
Crush All Rivals
The Catholic Church's fight is one to save neither religion, freedom, nor Christian civilization. It is a fight to save Catholic religion, Catholic freedom, Catholic civilization. Her opposition to world revolution is not caused by her wish to save the freedom of the world, but by her wish to continue her old fight against the freedom of the world. It is the latest episode in her unrelenting struggle to eliminate the most dangerous of her contemporary enemies Communism today, Socialism yesterday, Democracy and Liberalism in the last century, Protestantism in the eighteenth, seventeenth, and sixteenth centuries, the Turks in the fifteenth and fourteenth, the German Emperors in the thirteenth,, the Heretics in the twelfth and eleventh, the Orthodox Church in the tenth and ninth, and the Barbarians in the centuries following the collapse of the Roman Empire. In each epoch she has malevolently directed immense crusades against anyone impeding her conquests.
Claim the New World
In 1493, only one year after the discovery of America, Pope Alexander VI, as sole legal owner of all the Islands of the Oceans, granted the New World to King Ferdinand, proclaiming that all lands discovered or to be discovered west of a line one hundred leagues beyond the Azores belonged to Catholic Spain.
The New World was legally the absolute property of the Papacy, Hence only the subjects of the Popes were to be permitted to settle there.
Don't Let Science Override Doctrine
...Pius XII, dealing with the relationship of faith and science in his encyclical Humani Generis (August 21, 1950) - decreed that all Catholics "must be prepared to submit to the judgment of the Church "on scientific matters. What is the real significance of such an injunction? That Catholics and Catholic scientists are forbidden to accept theoretical or applied science which, according to the Church, is wrong.
The Popes plunge boldly into far deeper scientific waters, claiming to be the only possessors of the truth in fundamental scientific matters, e.g., in the origin of the human species. Pope Pius XII was very explicit on the subject. In the same encyclical, after having decreed that all Catholics must believe in the real existence of angels, he affirmed that they must, above all, accept the story of Adam and Eve as absolutely true. The story is neither a myth nor an allegory, he asserted. It must be taken literally.
Politics of Defeat
The evolution of contemporary society has blunted Catholic intransigence to such a point as to make it practically harmless. The Catholic Church herself, thanks to a new policy of
extreme caution, has greatly modified her attitude in such matters. Indeed, in a world made to pulsate ever more swiftly by the practical achievement of science, she has gone even further by adopting her classical strategy. As soon as she has become convinced that what she tried to annihilate has turned into an invincible force, bitter opposition is suddenly changed into open courtship. The Pope, naturally, becomes her leading oracle.
Whether Catholic beliefs are in open contradiction to logic, to the most elementary reasoning, and to the most concrete facts will not move the Pope or any Catholics, who will remain as unconcerned as sphinxes.
Superstition of Technology
The Pope's denunciation of the "superstition of technology" is not an isolated denunciation. It is a significant tract of the fundamental attitude of the Catholic Church towards science. This is supported by concrete facts. The more a modern country is impregnated with Catholicism, the less it is scientifically minded. The most striking evidence lies in the fact that Portugal's or Spain's contributions to modern scientific knowledge in the theoretical and experimental fields are practically nil.
Backward as Hell
Yet what is their achievement? Catholic colleges and universities are at the bottom of the list for published research, just as Catholic medical schools are at the bottom of medical rating lists; and of 303 "starred" scientists listed in American Men of Science only three, or less than one per cent, are Catholics. Though claiming the largest membership among all religious bodies in the U.S.A., they provide by far the smallest number of scientific research workers in proportion to their number. As for the prominent Catholic scientists produced in Italy, France, and Germany and claimed by the Church as her members, the overwhelming majority were only nominally Catholic. Most of them, in addition to having discarded Catholic allegiance, lived as agnostics or even as atheists, the proportion of Catholic scientists who remained practicing Catholics
...the Catholic Church does not bind medicine in general, as she did when the secular sword was at her disposal for instance during the Dark and Middle Ages. In those days she arrested medical progress for at least five hundred years by strictly forbidding medieval surgeons to study the human body, by making autopsies, on the ground that it was a mortal sin against the Holy Ghost, whose temple the body was, and by burning a few surgeons by way of example.
Threat of Psychology
opposition. Psychology, by entering into a forbidden inner emotional and spiritual temple o man, is, according to the Catholic Church, violating a place where only the Church is supreme. Hence it should be discouraged. Psychology threatens to minimize, indeed even to do away altogether with, sin.
Psychiatrists, therefore, must not supplant priests. Mass exorcism should be preferred to psychological treatment. From this to surgical operations dealing with mental disorders is a small step, and Catholic resistance gets stronger. Operations on the brain, or prefrontal leucotomy, a surgical treatment for mental and psychological disorders, are stubbornly discouraged. Reason? Such operations may impair the patient's free will, may produce a marked change in his personality, and, last but not least, may produce "a tendency
to be less religious."
Fossilized and Enslaved
Ireland's infantile death-rate was the blackest reproach to the Irish nation, being the worst in the whole of Europe. During the previous fifty years all other countries had at least halved the death-rate, many bringing it down by more than three-quarters. "Ireland alone is a clear exception to this rule" stated a World Health Organization report, based upon the dramatic disclosure that Ireland's death-rate was still seventy-five per cent of the rate common at the end of the last century an infantile death-rate nearly treble that of England
and Wales i.e., eighty-three per thousand against thirty.
Obstruction of Progress
The Mother and Child scheme had been condemned by them, not in obedience to the clamor of the poor Irish expectant mothers, indignantly objecting to the State's wanting them to have all the care and attention that all prospective mothers are entitled to have, but because the scheme did not fit in with the dicta of a bachelor in Rome namely, with the teaching of the Pope. According to Papal injunctions, the right to provide for the health of children belonged to the parents, and not to the State. Their Lordships, from the very start, made this quite clear in their declarations. Whether the parents could or could not pay the stiff medical fees, or even feed their children properly, their Lordships did not even deign to mention. Theirs is the care of souls, not of bodies.
Lying, Treachery & Disloyalty Allowed
Concrete instances are countless. Catholic laws can force Catholics to violate the laws of the civil authorities whether they are street-sweepers or judges of the Supreme Court.
The Catholic who is also a magistrate or a judge, therefore, by obeying his Church first, becomes a disloyal citizen, a treacherous magistrate, and a betrayer of the trust bestowed
upon him by the State.
Catholics, consequently, cannot be loyal citizens. They are a potential fifth-column, potential traitors to the State of which they are citizens, potential rebels against the society of which they are members. This, in virtue of die essence of their religious tenets and of the binding allegiance they owe to their religious leader.
Personal Interests Betrayed
The fact that the Catholic Church, behind her high-sounding moral principles, very often hides the crudest self-interest is ignored altogether. This was proved in the case of the Hungarian land-reforms, where the Church's high moral indignation had been prompted, not by theoretical claims of aloof justice, but by the concrete fact that she was herself the largest single landowner in the whole of Hungary, owning nothing less than 1,128,000 acres of the best land. Most of it was in large estates owned by the bishops, abbots, and higher clergy, Additional, but not coincidental, to this first interesting disclosure was a second. The next largest Hungarian landowner, after the Church, was one of her most devout sons, a member of the nobility and an intimate friend of the Hungarian Cardinal Primate, as we shall see later on. The Hungarian Government, although claiming to be inspired neither by Christian nor by Catholic principles, and although composed of Communists, Agnostics, and Atheists, acted on genuine, unadulterated Christian doctrines. Having distributed the seized land to landless peasants, it left the by no means despicable figure of 100,000 acres to their Lordships, the Hungarian hierarchy, plus 25,000 acres to be equally distributed among the very poor Catholic clergy. To the humble followers of Jesus Christ of the first few centuries this would have meant Christianity in action. To the Christians of the twentieth century it was unjust, diabolical, and anti-Christian. The Pope, from the splendors of the Vatican, prohibited Catholics to support such laws under pain of hell-fire, and thereupon ruled that Catholic judges must not implement them, lest they be unfavorably judged in the Last Judgment.
Contempt for Democracy
The Popes continued to oppose both Liberalism and democracy to such an extent that Pius IX issued his famous Syllabus, the greatest accumulation of malediction against modern democracy and all that it stands for in the history of the West.
Catholic determination to rule with a rod of iron. Catholic odium against modern democracy is nothing new. It is rooted in the most ancient past. Catholicism has hated, opposed, and attempted to destroy democracy from its very inception in its ruthless efforts to hamper the march of the masses towards freedom.
...as Pope Pius XII sternly reminded Catholics, "individual liberty in reality is only a deadly anarchy."
That this was so was proved by the fact that this same Christian Democracy was condemned as soon as it was born.
The Catholic Church, therefore, notwithstanding all her tactical moves and dishonest opportunism, has remained fundamentally anti-democratic in essence, belief, and practice. Characteristics, these, which are fully shared by all her members.
The word "freedom" has nowhere so ill a sound as in the Catholic Church. The Church knows only one kind of freedom: Catholic freedom, synonymous with total Church dominion over the individual, the State, and the community.
Falling for the Propaganda
Following the Second World War, one of the major tasks of the Catholic Church was to cultivate the legend that she could, and in fact did, champion democracy. Many, especially
Americans, came truly to believe the myth.
The claims of the Catholic Church that she is the defender of civic liberties, consequently, are deceitful, untrue, and dishonest.
Condemnation of the Magna Carta
The most venerable original source of modern democracy in the West was the Magna Carta. With that document, and for the first time, certain basic principles of individual freedom were set forth. These, although very inadequate to our modern eyes, were later to become the stem from which almost all democratic principles accepted by the West were eventually to blossom. The Catholic Church not only denounced this document, but, after having described the inspirers of the Charter as being "worse than Saracens/' it solemnly condemned it and forbade all Christians to accept the principles it embodied. It was thus that, upon the Magna Carta, the great charter of modern liberties, Pope Innocent III, after having called it "a diabolical document," pronounced the following:
In the name of God Almighty, Father, Son and Holy Ghost, and by authority o the blessed apostles Peter and Paul, after having taken counsel with our brothers, we wholly reject and condemn this charter.
The Government of Madrid, on the Vatican's advice, issued a royal decree making it a crime to possess them. Anyone caught supporting the principles which set the United States free was officially accused of "heretical ideas." The Holy Inquisition, as the most effective instrument of the Catholic Church, was put to work in an attempt to stamp out the diabolical doctrines of North American democracy. In Brazil the Constitution of the U.S.A. was put on the prohibited-reading list. In 1788 Olavide, in Peru, was found guilty of "heretical beliefs" and condemned to perform an ignominious public penance, by the Inquisition, for having in his private library the writings of Voltaire, Rousseau, Bayle, and North American liberals. In Colombia, in 1794, Antonio Narino, having come across a copy
of the forbidden Declaration of the Rights of Man., had it translated into Spanish. For such crime his goods were confiscated, his family proscribed, and he himself condemned to
ten years' imprisonment in Africa. When, in spite of the Catholic
Backing Slavery to the Hilt
The Popes not only never fought against slavery, not only accepted it as part and parcel of Christian society, but actually encouraged Catholic nations to capture and sell Christians in the free slave-markets of Europe.
When the Brazilian Parliament in the last century abolished slavery the Church denounced the promoters of the Bill with the bitterest venom indeed, she went so far as to help in the downfall of the Emperor of Brazil on the ground that he was one of its main advocates. The Catholic Church has not only persistently opposed the abolition of slavery, but sanctioned slavery. A Papal Bull in 1537 sanctioned the opening of slave markets in Lisbon, where between 10,000 and 12,000 negroes were sold each year, for transportation to the American colonies. The Popes approved slavery in Portugal as late as 1837. No Pope issued encyclicals condemning slavery until 1871, when slavery had been abolished practically throughout the civilized nations; even less did they promote mighty crusades to free slaves and thus abolish one of the most unchristian institutions of Christendom, as they did against the American colonies, against the liberals of the nineteenth century, and against the Communists of the twentieth. On the contrary, the abolition of slavery was initiated by Protestants, liberals, and democrats.
As a priest is a blind cog in the vast organizational religious machinery of the Catholic Church, it follows that, being an integral part of it, he becomes automatically an integral part of Vatican diplomacy.
Such a vast ecclesiastical organization is kept together by the inflexible, unbreakable mesh of a global administrative net, spreading Catholic religious and political tentacles all over the world. At the top of it all there stands the Pope, the undisputed Head of both the Church and the Vatican. Under him, wholly subservient, there are the powerful heads of the religious, administrative, and political Congregations, round which the whole machinery of both Church and Vatican is made to revolve e.g. the Prefect of the Congregation of the Propaganda of the Faith, known as the "Red Pope," and the Superior General of the Jesuits, known as the "Black Pope."
The "three Popes" can put the 1,500 bishops and archbishpps scattered in all lands at the disposal of any of the Vatican's diplomatic representatives, who thus can employ the Church's machinery for each ecclesiastical area of which there are almost 2,000 in the world according to his needs.
Besides the regular and missionary clergy, the nuncio has at his disposal all the vast machinery of the religious orders e.g., the Salesians, with 16,000 members; the Religious Institutes, such as the Brothers of the Christian Schools, with about 15,000 members; the Monastic Orders, such as the Benedictines, with total of 12,000 professed members; the Franciscans with 24,000, the Jesuits with over 30,000, the total number of priests and other members of Orders of men running to over 220,000, and that of nuns and sisters to over 600,000.
The True "Fascists"
Others remained blatantly Fascist. For instance, Franco's Falange in Spain and Salazar's National Union in Portugal. And in Latin America the Catholic Parties continued to be the most reactionary political movements, being Fascist, clerical, and stubborn supporters of landlordism.
Infiltration of Britain
...the widespread belief that Vatican influence in English affairs is almost nil.
From the beginning of the Second World War, Catholics infiltrated in considerable numbers into the British national Press (e.g. Daily Mail, Daily Telegraph, Daily Express, Times, Observer) and into the great British Press Trusts, such as the Rothermere and Kemsley groups, the popular weekly Press, and such other molders of public opinion as the B.B.C. with more than remarkable success, Catholic individuals often holding positions which enabled them to exert a great influence in those specific spheres.
In the trade unions the Catholic Church penetrated with considerable success, supplemented by the main exponents of Catholic trade unionism or bodies dealing with Labour and Trade Unions, whose ultimate purpose was to sway the labour in general to pursue policies conforming to Catholic tenets.
...in 1950 there were about 130 Catholic peers and baronets, including 33 Catholic members of the House of Lord, 21 Catholic MPs, 3 Catholic Ministers, 3 and, an important means of exerting Catholic influence in high quarters, 12 Catholic members of the Privy Council. All these were further strengthened by about 140 Catholic knights, many in important positions.
British Foreign Office
But where the Vatican is at its strongest is in the British Foreign Office, a veritable citadel of Vatican diplomacy. In 1936, by an actual count of policy-making officials, Catholics formed forty-one per cent of the whole Foreign Office permanent staff, which increased by twenty-two per cent after the Second World War.
Some time in 1914, the British Foreign Office secretly sent an envoy to the Vatican. This was done, it should be noted, without consulting Parliament, testing public opinion, or giving any inkling of the status, duration, or power of the British envoy; a most blatant violation of the British Constitution.
The influence which the Catholic Church can exercise in the political life of the country via the Foreign Office has always been of paramount importance. It can profoundly affect the direction of British foreign policy on European and world issues.
English Catholics were able to write British foreign policy, which became almost immediately also American policy towards Spain, which finally resulted in the installation of Fascist Franco.
After the Second World War Catholic influence increased a hundredfold. That this is no exaggeration can be gathered from the fact that the two most important key posts of British diplomacy in relation to the paramount problems of the post- War era namely Soviet Russia and Communism were filled by two most zealous Catholics, Sir David Kelly, the British Ambassador to Moscow (1950-1), and Sir Ivone Kirkpatrick, British High Commissioner for Germany.
This in spite of the fact that the resurrected Catholic Party was not the largest West German Party and that Catholics throughout Germany were only about thirty three per cent of the whole German population, the greater bulk being Protestants. This remarkable diplomatic feat was accomplished with the full support of the American State Department and of the British Foreign Office, so that it could rightly be said, as an American Senator put it, that the first West German Government was conceived in Rome and born in Washington.
The installation of a fanatical Catholic as the first Chancellor of West Germany contributed in a great degree to the reorientation of post-War Germany in a direction which was the main cause of the split in Germany and in the Western World.
At the most critical period of tension between the other occupying power, Soviet Russia, and the Western nations. Sir Ivone Kirkpatrick, Permanent Under-Secretary to the British Foreign Office, was appointed High Commissioner for Western Germany.
Vatican influence, exerted indirectly, can similarly be felt further e.g., in the various countries of the British Commonwealth, where there exist large and small Catholic minority groups. These have been known to be more prone to the combined suggestions of the British Foreign Office and the Vatican than, perhaps, to those emanating from any other quarters, including their own governments. Several Premiers of these countries have been or are Catholics (e.g., Canada, Australia, New Zealand), or have influential parliamentary Catholic pressure groups of their own (e.g. Australia).
Contrary to general belief, the U.S.A. was represented at the Vatican by a consul for over seventy years after the establishment of the United States.
Relations with the Vatican were renewed by President Theodore Roosevelt, who sent William Howard Taft to Rome as his special representative to negotiate on problems arising from the American acquisition of the Philippine Islands.
A few years before the outbreak of the Second World War the Vatican pressed once more for an exchange of diplomatic representatives. One of its first successes was attained in 1933, when the Vatican appointed an apostolic delegate in Washington, whose position was non-diplomatic and whose work was officially confined to ecclesiastical matters. A few years later "the Vatican took a further step, and in 1936 sent Eugemo Pacelli to visit President Roosevelt.
In 1939 President Roosevelt appointed Myron Taylor as his personal representative to the Pope. Precedent for the Taylor mission rested in the Taft assignment. The technical difficulty which stood in the way of such an appointment that is to say, that the plan had to be submitted to Congress, which alone had the power to grant the necessary financial funds for the maintenance of a legation was by-passed simply by not asking Congress for the necessary funds. Mr. Taylor, being a millionaire, paid his own expenses, and hence the question of asking Congress for an appropriation was avoided.
During his ten years' assignment to the Vatican he made seven separate trips to the Holy See for President Roosevelt and six for President Truman. No envoy was more frequently received in private audience by the Pope.
Not long afterwards, however, President Truman astonished America by unexpectedly announcing the appointment of a fully fledged American ambassador to the Vatican (October 21, 1951), thus openly violating the American Constitution. The appointment had to be cancelled.
In the U.S.A. Vatican diplomacy works mainly via non-diplomatic instruments to further its diplomatic interests, two of these non-diplomatic instruments being the National Catholic Welfare Conference and the dc facto head of the American hierarchy, the Cardinal of New York.
Whereas British Catholicism is extremely cautious, secretive, and almost unrecognizable as a distinctive, peculiar political force, the American is vocal, dynamic, aggressive, although superficially, but not in reality, haphazard, incoherent, and disorganized.
Catholic pressure groups, beginning with the Catholic vote, are political factors which no political candidate, big or small, can afford to ignore. The two major American political parties, before launching upon any major national or international policy, are always very careful to gauge first the reaction of the Catholic voter. Presidential elections are not exempt from this Catholic political sword of Damocles. A united Catholic bloc growing towards 30,000,000, whether for or against, can be decisive in the election of a new American President. Once elected, with or without Catholic support, a President is no safer than he was before. For the Catholic hierarchy can influence his political conduct with continuous blackmail via a perennial threat of withholding the Catholic vote or of using it at the next Congressional or Presidential elections. This continuous blackmail is more responsible for the domestic and particularly for the foreign policy of the U.S.A. than is generally realized.
The political pressure made to bear upon the President is fully shared by Senators and Congressmen, also the targets of political Catholicism, in inverse ratio to their importance.
Political Catholicism, therefore, should not be taken lightly. It is a force which is playing a major role in the political life of the West. Whether in the form of well-organized belligerent parties, or working disguised, as in England, or through pressure groups, as in the U.S.A., it is a most powerful instrument in the hands of the Church. It is even mightier when manipulated, as in fact it is, by Vatican diplomacy. Political Catholicism is the pet creature of Catholic diplomatic slyness. Consequently it is not only treacherous, but extremely perilous, a concrete danger to all those liberties which it professes to uphold, but against which, in reality, it is battling, with a view to their final destruction.
Vatican envoys are scattered all over the globe, but because they can exert direct diplomatic pressure upon groups or organizations dealing specifically with world problems.
...the field of Catholic activities is of a truly universal character, and thus, being wholly independent of geographical, racial, and political confines, Catholic intervention is felt in the most diverse spheres and in the most distant regions.
The Vatican, consequently, must be reckoned as a great European political Power. As such, it should never be underestimated, lest its undetected influence undermine, with undue slyness, the exertions of the European family of nations, striving to reach a working formula for long-sought European unity.
Others are meant to influence media of propaganda, like the International Catholic Office of the Cinema, or put pressure upon social problems of many countries simultaneously, like the World Congress of the Apostolate of the Laity, or to deal with political matters on an international scale, like St. Joan's International Social and Political Alliance, or the International Congress of Social Studies, or the International Catholic Emigration Commission.
Catholic trade unions have been established in most countries, sometimes with a membership running into millions, rivaling Communist- and Socialist-dominated unions, and succeeding, besides splitting the labour field in Europe, in splitting it also throughout the world by the creation of a World Federation of Catholic Trade Unions.
In Great Britain there exists the Association of Catholic Trade Unionists. There is a comparable organization in the U.S.A. Political Catholicism, although not wholly responsible, was nevertheless a powerful indirect influence in setting up a new world federation of non-Communist trade union organizations, the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions, with an aggregate membership of 50,000,000.
All these international exertions, a characteristic feature of the Vatican in the period following the Second World War, within a few years dealt with so many international and worldwide problems that it became necessary to create a Catholic "International of Internationals" centred in Rome, where the Presidents of the Affiliated International Organizations meet yearly to co-ordinate their activities on a world-wide scale.
When to these are added organized political Catholicism, the religious convictions of Catholic politicians, and the spiritual injunctions exerted upon them by their Church, then
we are faced with a political phenomenon of great import: the Vatican, which, although not represented at great international assemblies, can make its presence felt more forcibly than most of the official members.
Vatican and EU
The Vatican can openly oppose the election of certain delegates to the European Parliament on the ground that they pursue a policy contrary to that of the Church. e.g., Catholic.
But the Vatican, besides being a great European Power, is something more. For, in addition to influencing councils dealing with the fate of a continent, it can sway assemblies
responsible for shaping the destiny of the entire world e.g., the League of Nations after the First World War, when the Secretary-General of the League was a devout Catholic; and the United Nations Organization after the Second.
Delegates of Catholic countries were mostly Catholics, often zealous ones. These were supplemented by individual Catholics who, although not representing any member nation, yet could powerfully influence important problems e.g., the Chief of the United Nations' Status of Women Commission; by members of the Catholic hierarchy sent as official advisers to a national delegation at U.N.O. e.g. Bishop O'Brien, Auxiliary to Cardinal Gilroy, Archbishop of Sydney, as official adviser to the Australian delegation to the U.N. General Assembly (September, 1950); and by individuals representing non-Christian countries e.g. Moslem Pakistan sent Mr. Charles Lobo, former Chief Justice of Sind (1950); Buddhist South Korea sent its Foreign Minister, a most fervent Catholic; Hindu India sent the Rev. Jerome D'Souza, a Jesuit, who, besides being an Indian delegate to U.N.O., was a member of the Parliament of India.
Issues apparently unconnected with religion or with the Catholic Church, after careful scrutiny, will frequently be found to have been affected by Vatican diplomacy. Questions seemingly of an essentially political or economic
The Vatican can use national and international organizations in order to mobilize world public opinion against its enemies: e.g. during the trials of Archbishop Stepinac in Yugoslavia and Cardinal Mindszenty in Hungary, when both prelates were found guilty of conspiring to overthrow their respective governments. The Vatican organized a world campaign, picturing them as innocent victims.
Vatican diplomacy, as the instrument of a hoary institution determined to conquer, will pursue policies spanning generations, and even the centuries. It will unhesitatingly lay a web of religious, diplomatic, and political intrigue, which it will use year after year, decade after decade, persistently, relentlessly, unscrupulously, regardless of set-backs, defeats, or the risk of marring the relationship of nations indeed, unmindful even of provoking violent disorders, revolutions, or wars. It will pursue the simplest and most obvious policies or the slyest and most secretive methods, the subtlest and most undetectable tactics, the most ruthless devices, or seemingly unworkable schemes. It will not hesitate to arrange for envoys to be secretly accredited to the Papal Court, by-passing the will of a nation; to wait half a century, to break the jealously kept tradition of a Protestant country; to oppose the entry into a war of another at one time, but to encourage the same country's intervention into another conflict, provided it fits into the general strategy; to employ the diplomats of other nations as Vatican agents; to blackmail simultaneously two great world Powers to exert increasing pressure upon the head of a great nation, so as to influence its foreign policy, and thus to intervene in the conduct of another world conflict.
To circumvent the objections of any given country unwilling or hostile to the establishment of diplomatic relations, Vatican diplomacy will act in the slyest fashion e.g. the establishment of diplomatic relations between the Vatican and England. Before the First World War the Vatican had pressed for the establishment of diplomatic relations with Great Britain. Political and religious opposition, particularly from the Church of England, however, became such a formidable obstacle that the scheme was momentarily shelved and half-forgotten.
Agents of the Vatican
Technically speaking, the Papal representatives are divided into three main classes, all of them ecclesiastics. Born Legates (Legati Nati); Sent Legates (Legati Missi), or Legates "from the side" (a latere) of the Pope; and Resident Legates.
The countries to which a nuncio may be sent, roughly speaking, can be placed in four main categories: friendly countries; neutral countries ready to come only half way; countries unable officially to make any agreement with the Church, but whose governments want to keep in close touch with her; and, lastly, countries which refuse to have anything to do with the Vatican.
Papal Nuncio to Germany and subsequently as the Vatican's Secretary of State. It is no mere coincidence that the last two German Chancellors prior to Hitler's assumption of power were Catholics, the Leaders of the Centre Party, and the intimate friends of the former Papal Nuncio. It is also no mere coincidence that both strove to rule with Hitler; indeed, not only did they invite him to share their Governments, but it was chiefly thanks to them that Hitler was finally asked to form a Government. Thus, while Dr. Briining, Leader of the Centre Party and German Chancellor between 1930 and 1932, on two occasions invited Hitler into his Government via the formation of a coalition between the Centre and the Nazi Parties, Von Papen, the other Centre Party Leader and the last German Chancellor before the establishment of the Nazi regime, was the very man who persuaded Von Hindenburg, the German President, who had a great personal dislike of the Fuehrer, to call on Hitler to form a new Cabinet. It was mainly due to this that in January, 1933, Hitler finally became Chancellor of Germany. The Nazi regime had come into being.
At the head of the new Germany, and second only to Hitler, there stood the German Vice-Chancellor, the Leader of the Catholic Party, the personal friend of Pacelli, the Papal knight Franz von Papen. Not long afterwards Hitler asked the Reichstag for an "Empowering Enactment."
King Edward VII
A King or a Queen of Britain is the supreme head of the Church of England. As such they cannot visit, recognize, or pay obeisance in any form to the Pope. That, in addition to being an established Protestant tradition, is also made legal by the Statute, Constitution, and Laws of both Church and State. These Laws have been jealously guarded for generations, as symbolizing the complete independence of a Protestant country from the Papacy. The breaking of such a tradition, consequently, would imply that a Protestant country recognized the moral authority of the Papacy, and, indeed, even if tacitly, the religious supremacy of Catholicism over Protestantism.
Employing the tactics of discreet religious-diplomatic intrigue via the Foreign Office, after years of secretive maneuvering, the Vatican at long last succeeded in its first important step. In 1903 King Edward VII visited the Pope. This was a flagrant breach of the Act of Settlement. The British public and the Church of England were kept completely in the dark about the whole affair, and news of the royal visit was released only after the event had taken place. To appease an incensed public opinion, both the Foreign Office and the Vatican hastened to say that the visit had no significance whatsoever, that it was a merely personal affair of the King, and that in any case it was regarded as an exceptional event which would not be repeated.
But the precedent had been created, and this helped not inconsiderably in preparing the way for posting the British envoy to the Vatican in subsequent years
This was followed by an even more important visit, that of the King and Queen of England themselves, in 1923. As on the first occasion, great secrecy surrounded the whole affair, and the news of the royal breaking of the Statute of the land was released, again, after the event had taken place, and consequently when it was too late to do anything apart from protest.
Following the Royal example, rarely at first but increasingly frequently with the passing of the years, high personages began to pay discreet visits to the Vatican, until a generation later delegations from the House of Lords paid public and official visits to the Pope. British Cabinet Ministers and, indeed, even Prime Ministers went to the Vatican to discuss political and religious problems with the head of Catholicism. This was not all Members of the Royal Family were seen again in the Vatican halls. In 1949 Princess Margaret, attired in black, was officially received in audience by Pope Pius XII. By this time, the public had become accustomed enough to see important British individuals go to the Vatican, and hence the Royal visit went by wholly unchallenged, the furor of a few years before being totally absent.
Queen Elizabeth II
Two years later, on April 13, 1951, the heir to the British Throne and future Head of the Protestant Church of England, accompanied by her husband, was received in private audience by the Pope. The event
The Princess had half an hour with the Pope, who gave her an artistic image, and to her husband a large gold medal commemorating the first year of his Pontificate. They were then received by the Undersecretary of State for the Vatican and by other important ecclesiastical personages